Dentistry & Oral Health
The University of Adelaide Dental and Oral Health degrees aim to provide its graduates with the basic knowledge, skills and competencies required for the practice of dentistry and the practice of oral health respectively.
These attributes form the foundation for future careers in dentistry and oral health and ongoing self-directed learning. A broad-based, experiential and patient-oriented curriculum is necessary for the development of such knowledge and skills. In this sense the BDS and BOH programs are different from many other programs offered by the University. The approaches to individual learning, academic values and teaching methods used are designed with this aim in mind. In particular, the importance of functioning as part of a team, the ability to communicate effectively, habits of ongoing, self-directed learning and the adoption of high standards of professional and ethical conduct are repeatedly emphasised. The University of Adelaide Dental and Oral Health programs are strongly experiential programs: simply acquiring knowledge is not sufficient. Rather, students actively participate in practical learning experiences which will prepare them for their future careers as dentists or oral health therapists.
Successfully completing the BDS or BOH program enables you to apply for registration as a registered dentist or oral health therapist with the Dental Board of Australia, in partnership with the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Authority (AHPRA). Because the award of the BDS or BOH degree entitles graduates to obtain dental registration, the University must ensure that students have the appropriate knowledge, experience and competence for this award to be conferred.
1.1 The Learning Environment
Many of the activities associated with the professional practice of a registered dentist and oral health therapist are time sensitive, where the capacity to perform certain activities within specified time limits is required to reduce or avoid risks to patient safety and wellbeing.
The ongoing safety and wellbeing of you, the practitioner, and others (eg, patients, dental team members, and colleagues) is of paramount importance. Therefore, an appreciation of the importance of effective time management and the ability to complete activities and perform procedures in a timely manner are emphasised repeatedly during the dental and oral health programs. Assessments during simulated clinic/laboratory and clinical sessions and in the form of written or oral examinations usually include some assessment of effective time management.
Students are required to undertake learning activities in mixed gender environments, which reflect the Australian health care context. Registration as a Student Dental Practitioner/Oral Health Therapist with the AHPRA is essential for undertaking clinical placements.
1.2 Expected Academic Workload
The BDS and BOH programs place significant demands on its students. The learning approach and assessment techniques are likely to be different from those experienced elsewhere. To successfully undertake and complete the BDS and BOH program, students will need to allocate an appropriate time commitment to their study.
Formal contact hours:
Each week students are involved in group learning activities (Integrated Learning Activities or Dental Learning Packages), class meetings, tutorials, group work, practical sessions and clinical sessions. Attendance and participation at all classes is compulsory in the BDS and BOH programs as both programs are preparing students to provide direct patient care in the clinic and on graduation to be able to practice independently. No catch-up sessions are available if classes such as clinic and simulation clinic are missed. The majority of classes are face to face sessions with some delivery online. In addition, all classes including clinics/simulated clinic/laboratory sessions have set start/finish times, requiring punctual arrival. As classes require regular student participation, students need to make significant time commitments for preparation, which may include time periods normally regarded as 'after hours'. Students will need physical and mental stamina, resilience, as well as flexibility with respect to hours of attendance. Often the days can commence with 8am class meetings and end late in the day around 6pm (while some year levels finish at 8.30pm). In the senior years, the academic year is significantly longer than first year and many other university programs. In addition, clinic placements are undertaken at a range of locations around South Australia and interstate, some of which will be in rural and/or remote areas. Students are required to travel between clinic placement locations and the main North Tce campus where classes are conducted. Students will incur varying travel and accommodation costs depending upon clinical placement and location.
Informal contact hours:
In addition to the formal contact time required for the BDS and BOH program, students will need to allocate informal contact time. Informal contact time will be required for various activities which may include, but are not limited to, assessment tasks, online activities, reading, researching, note-taking, revision, writing, consultation with staff and informal discussions and group meetings with other students.
While the relative proportion of contact and informal-contact time may vary from year to year, as a guide, a full-time student would expect to spend, on average, a total of 48 hours per week on their studies to achieve a satisfactory level of performance. This time for studying applies to all weeks during teaching periods, i.e., commencing in O week and finishing at the end of exam period in each semester. The workload for the Adelaide BDS program is 24 units per year (full time). The workload for the Adelaide BOH program is 24 units per year (full time).
1.3 What is expected of students working in the clinic?
From the outset of the Adelaide BDS and BOH programs, students are required to work in the clinic. In first and second year, students work on each other. In the second half of second year of the BDS and the second half of first year of the BOH, students will commence preventive dental care on adult family/friend patients. In the second and third year of the BOH, and third, fourth and fifth year of the BDS, students will work in South Australian Dental Service (SADS) clinics in various locations. These locations include: in the city of Adelaide, metropolitan areas of Adelaide or South Australian rural locations or community clinics in interstate locations. Patients can range from normal healthy individuals to medically-compromised patients such as patients with uncontrolled diabetes, heart conditions, mental health issues and autoimmune conditions. The age range of patients is from children to adults.
Students are responsible for comprehensive patient care and perform a variety of dental treatment (appropriate to each year level). Most often the procedures performed by dental students are irreversible, such as periodontal, restorative, endodontic, complex restorative treatment and exodontia. Many of the procedures performed by oral health students are also irreversible, such as restorative treatment, simple endodontic treatment/exodontia on children and periodontal treatment.
Working in the clinic can be physically and mentally demanding. The dental cubicle is a fairly confined space. Students spend most of the time sitting as a dental operator and will be required to use dental equipment within the cubicle. In the early years of the program students' act as dental assistants for each other but in the later years, students will not work with a chair side assistant for the majority of sessions. There are usually dental assistants who are allocated to a group of students within the whole clinic.
Working in the dental clinic as a student involves sitting in an operator chair around the patient. It involves dynamic and static positions, operating foot controls, using both right and left hands/fingers to hold/operate instruments or to operate equipment. Most student clinics are often physically large areas (between 10-20 chairs) and can be quite noisy with many students, staff, tutors, patients and dental equipment working simultaneously. In addition students need to use the computerised patient record keeping system for all patients.
During preclinical and clinic sessions students are under the supervision of a qualified tutor. During these sessions students are assessed by their supervising tutor. At the end of each session there is time spent on discussing verbal and written feedback. Students are expected to carefully and honestly monitor and reflect on their performance both verbally and in written form
1.4 Non-academic Pre-requisites for applicants/students accepted into the Adelaide BDS/BOH programs
Pre-requesites for entry into the degrees and clinical placements: Applicant requirements
- AHPRA Student Registration
- Criminal History Clearance
- First Aid Certificate
- Prescribed Communicable Infections (PCI) Screening Notification
- Tuberculosis (TB) testing Student Registration
1.5 What knowledge, skills and personal attributes do I need to become a successful dental or oral health student?
Ethical and Professional behaviour
- a high degree of professionalism and ethical behaviour, including academic integrity and maintenance of patient confidentiality
- familiarity with or knowledge of the Dental Board of Australia's Code of Conduct for Practitioners and abiding by guidelines
- familiarity with or knowledge of the School of Dentistry's Undergraduate Handbook and abiding by Academic Policies and Procedures
- familiarity with or knowledge of the South Australian Dental Service Induction Handbook and abiding by SADS Policies and Procedures
- effective communication and interpersonal skills
- demonstrates empathy and concern for people
- effective team work skills; collaborating effectively with peers
- be willing to seek advice/assistance from peers; dental school staff; university services as required
- learning for understanding and meaning; applying learning to the clinic situation
Fine and gross physical mobility and co-ordination
- efficient fine and gross motor skills
- interpreting and integrating 2D and 3D perspectives
- attention to detail
- being organised
- commitment to continuous learning
- critical appraisal and reflection
- attendance and active participation during all learning activities [28-38 hours per week (contact time)]
- spending approximately 20 hours per week outside of class time studying, preparing for clinic/simulation laboratory activities, revising and reflecting on performance
- leadership abilities including shared leadership
- problem-solving skills
- apply and integrate knowledge in contrast to rote learning
- ability to locate, summarise and review the quality of information from commonly available academic resources in a planned and timely manner.
- proficient in using of current technologies that support learning
Definition of Inherent Requirements
Inherent requirements are the fundamental parts of a program that must be met by all students. They are the abilities, knowledge and skills you need to complete the program. Students with a disability or chronic health condition may have adjustments made to enable them to meet these requirements. There may also be other considerations, such as cultural or religious considerations, that may impact on your capacity to meet an inherent requirement and so may require adjustments. However, any adjustments must not fundamentally change the nature of the inherent requirement.
All students must fulfil the inherent requirements of the BDS or BOH program they are undertaking. While reasonable adjustments can be made, these adjustments cannot compromise academic integrity. It is the student's responsibility to check all the requirements of courses, and consider the effects of any medical condition or disability on their ability to complete the program requirements. Learn more about our Disability Service
The University of Adelaide strongly supports the right of all people who wish to pursue studies in the Dental or Oral Health programs at the School of Dentistry to achieve their potential and chosen career objectives. The School is committed to making reasonable adjustments to teaching and learning, assessment and other activities to address the impact of students' disabilities so that they are able to successfully participate in their program.
Students who have impaired function in their hands or arms, or significant audio/visual impairment will have difficulty pursuing this program. It is highly advisable for any prospective student with such a disability to contact the Faculty to discuss the issue.
Students with disabilities for whom reasonable adjustments are required for them to undertake their program, should contact the Disability Service before semester starts or very early in the semester. Some adjustments need up to 4-8 weeks lead time to organise, so it is imperative that early contact is made. In some cases more advance notice is needed, eg, one year prior to commencement of the program/year as clinic rosters and placements are organised in the previous year.To support potential and current students' decision making, a series of inherent requirement statements has been developed. These statements specify the course requirements of the entry level dental or oral health programs for student admission and progression. The statements embrace the Ethical, Behavioural, Legal, Communication, Cognitive, Sensory, Strength and Mobility, and Sustainability aspects associated with the professional practice of an Australian registered Dentist or Oral Health Therapist.
How to read the inherent requirement statements
If you are intending to enrol in the Adelaide BDS or BOH program you should look at these inherent requirement statements and think about whether you may experience challenges in meeting these requirements. If you think you may experience challenges related to your disability, chronic health condition or any other reason, you should discuss your concerns with the University Disability Service to ensure a managed approach, in conjunction with the Dental school can be developed.
The Dentistry Inherent Requirements provide a detailed statement of the skills that students require as a part of the University of Adelaide Dental and Oral Health degrees, together with some examples of where and how these skills may be required. The degrees support learning of and assess these skills which are core/inherent learning requirements of the Dental and Oral Health degree.
Each inherent requirement is made up of the following five parts:
- Part 1 - introduction to the inherent requirement
- Part 2 - description of the inherent requirement
- Part 3 - explanation of why this is an inherent requirement of the course/program
- Part 4 - the nature of any adjustments that may be made to allow you to meet the requirement
- Part 5 - examples of things you must be able to do to show you have met the requirement
These inherent requirement statements should be read in conjunction with other course/program information.
- University of Adelaide BDS and BOH Program Information Leaflet
- School of Dentistry Undergraduate Handbook : refer to School of Dentistry
- Students unable to attend lab/clinic due to injury or illness policy: refer to School of Dentistry
- Dental Board of Australia publications such as the Code of Conduct for Practitioners
The University of Adelaide supports the inclusion of students with disabilities by providing reasonable adjustments. In determining whether an adjustment is reasonable, the University will take into account:
- the nature of the disability
- the effect of the adjustment on the student's ability to achieve and demonstrate the required learning outcomes and participate in the program
- the effect of the proposed adjustment on anyone else, including staff and other students.
Reasonable adjustments may include modification to assessment and provision of additional support services; however, adjustments cannot be provided which would undermine the core or inherent learning or assessment required and thus compromises the academic integrity of the program.
Once enrolled in a course at The University of Adelaide, students with disabilities have access to the University's Disability Service. The role of this service is to collaborate with other University staff to provide adjustments required for courses and examinations, and to provide information and advice to assist students to achieve their learning outcomes. Further information about these services can be accessed at The University of Adelaide's Disability Service
2.3 Inherent requirement statements
Fine motor skills are required as part of this program. Skills required include the capacity/ability to:There are eight categories of inherent requirements in the BDS and BOH. Some categories have a number of sub-categories.
- Ethical behaviour
- Behavioural stability
- Legal obligations
- Sensory abilities
- Strength & mobility
- Sustainable performance
BDS and BOH Inherent Requirement Statements - Ethical behaviour Introduction 1 Dentistry/Oral Health are professions governed by codes, guidelines and policies where practitioners are both accountable and responsible for ensuring professional behaviour in all contexts Description 2 Demonstrates knowledge and engages in ethical behaviour in practice Explanation 3 Justification of inherent requirement:
- Compliance with the codes, guidelines and policies facilitates safe, competent interactions and relationships with people to ensure their physical, psychological, emotional and spiritual wellbeing is not placed at risk
- Compliance with the codes, guidelines and policies facilitates safe, competent interactions and relationships with people to ensure the student's physical, psychological, emotional and spiritual wellbeing is not placed at risk
Nature of adjustments 4 Adjustments must not compromise codes, guidelines and policies or result in unethical behaviour Exemplars 5
- Complying with academic and non-academic misconduct policies
- Demonstrating appropriate behaviour with confidential information in academic and clinical settings
BDS and BOH Inherent Requirement Statements - Behavioural Stability Introduction 1 Behavioural stability is required to function and adapt effectively and sensitively in a demanding role Description 2 Demonstrates behavioural stability to work constructively in a diverse and changing academic and clinical environment Explanation 3 Justification of inherent requirement: Behavioural stability is required to work in a changing and unpredictable environment. Dental and oral health students will be exposed to stressful situations and human suffering and will be required to have behavioural stability to manage these events objectively, constructively and professionally Nature of adjustments 4 Adjustments must support stable, effective and professional behaviour in both academic and clinical settings Exemplars 5
- Being receptive and responding appropriately to constructive feedback
- Effectively coping with own emotions & behaviours when interacting with individuals who may be stressed in the clinical setting
BDS and BOH Inherent Requirement Statements - Legal obligations Introduction 1 Dental/Oral Health practice is mandated by specific legislation to enable the safe delivery of care Description 2 Demonstrates knowledge and compliance with Australian Law, professional regulations and scope of practice Explanation 3 Justification of inherent requirement:
- Knowledge, understanding, and compliance with legislative and regulatory requirements are necessary pre-requisites to clinical placements to reduce the risk of harm, to self and others
- Compliance with these professional regulations and the Australian Law ensures that students are both responsible and accountable for their practice
Nature of adjustments 4 Adjustments must be consistent with legislative and regulatory requirements Exemplars 5
- Responding to the requirement for student registration with the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Authority (AHPRA)
- Complying with relevant child protection and safety legislation
BDS and BOH Inherent Requirement Statements - Communication Responding to the requirement for student registration with the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Authority (AHPRA)
Complying with relevant child protection and safety legislation
Verbal Introduction 1 Effective and efficient verbal communication, in English, is an essential requirement to provide safe delivery of care Description 2 Demonstrates:
- The ability to understand and respond to verbal communication accurately, appropriately and in a timely manner
- The ability to provide clear instructions in the context of the situation
- The ability to provide timely, clear feedback and reporting
Explanation 3 Justification of inherent requirement:
- Adequate communication with patients, tutors, dental team members is essential to the diagnosis, management and treatment processes and patient safety in dentistry/oral health
- Speed and interactivity of communication may be critical for patient safety or treatment
- Timely, accurate and effective delivery of instructions is critical for patient safety, treatment and management
Nature of adjustments 4 Adjustments for impaired verbal communication needs must address effectiveness, speed, clarity and accuracy issues to ensure patient safety Exemplars 5
- Participating in tutorial, simulation and clinical sessions and discussions
- Responding appropriately to a patient care request in the clinical environment
Non-verbal Introduction 1 Effective non-verbal communication is fundamental to dentistry/oral health and needs to be respectful, clear, attentive, empathic, honest and non-judgemental Description 2 Demonstrates:
- The capacity to recognise, interpret and respond appropriately to behavioural cues
- Consistent and appropriate awareness of own behaviours
- Sensitivity to individual differences
Explanation 3 Justification of inherent requirement:
- The ability to observe and understand non-verbal cues assists with building a rapport with people and gaining their trust and respect in academic, work and personal relationships
- Displaying consistent and appropriate facial expressions, eye contact, being mindful of space, time boundaries and body movements and gestures promotes trust and professionalism in academic, work and personal relationships
- Communication may be restricted to non-verbal behaviours. Being sensitive to individual differences displays respect and empathy for others and develops trusting relationships
- The ability to observe and understand non-verbal cues is essential for safe and effective observation of patient symptoms and reactions to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of patients
Nature of adjustments 4 Adjustments must maintain the capacity to recognise, respond to or initiate effective non-verbal communication or its equivalent in a timely and appropriate manner Exemplars 5
- Recognising and responding appropriately in classroom situations
- Recognising and responding appropriately to cues in the clinical environment
Written Introduction 1 Effective written communication is a fundamental dental/oral health responsibility with professional and legal ramifications Description 2 Demonstrates capacity to construct coherent written communication appropriate to the circumstances Explanation 3 Justification of inherent requirement:
- Construction of assignments/essays/group work and summative assessment that meet academic standards is essential to convey knowledge and understanding of relevant subject matter, procedures and professional practice
- Accurate written communication, including record keeping and patient notes, is vital to provide consistent and safe patient care
Nature of adjustments 4 Adjustments must meet necessary standards of clarity, accuracy, accessibility, transferability and portability to ensure effective recording and transmission of information in both academic and clinical settings Exemplars 5
- Constructing assignments/essays/group work and summative assessment to meet academic standards
- Constructing a dental patient record/referral letter/diagnostic request form in an accurate and timely manner that meets professional standards and ensures patient safety
BDS and BOH Inherent Requirement Statements - Cognition Safe and effective delivery of dental/oral health care requires comprehensive knowledge of theory, skills and competent literacy and numeracy skills
Knowledge and cognitive skills
Introduction 1 Consistent and effective knowledge and cognitive skills must be demonstrated to provide safe and competent dental/oral health care Description 2 Demonstrates:
- Capacity to locate appropriate and relevant information
- Ability to process information relevant to practice
- Ability to integrate and implement knowledge (including evidence based decision-making) in practice
Explanation 3 Justification of inherent requirement:
- Safe and effective delivery of dental/oral health care is based on comprehensive knowledge that must be sourced, understood and applied appropriately
Nature of adjustments 4 Adjustments must ensure that a clear demonstration of knowledge and cognitive skills is not compromised or impeded Exemplars 5
- Ability to conceptualise and use appropriate knowledge in response to academic assessment items
- Accurately applying knowledge of policy and procedures in simulated and real clinical settings
Literacy (Language) Introduction 1 Competent literacy skills are essential to provide safe and effective delivery of dental/oral health care Description 2 Demonstrates:
- Ability to accurately acquire information and convey appropriate and effective messages
- Ability to read and comprehend a range of literature and information
- The capacity to understand and implement academic conventions to construct written text in a scholarly manner
Explanation 3 Justification of inherent requirement:
- The ability to acquire information and to accurately convey messages is fundamental to ensure safe and effective assessment, diagnosis, treatment and delivery of care
- The ability to read, decode, interpret and comprehend multiple sources of information is fundamental for safe and effective delivery of dental/oral health care
Nature of adjustments 4 Adjustments to address literacy issues must meet accuracy, clarity and availability requirements and demonstrate a capacity to effectively comprehend, apply and communicate information Exemplars 5
- Listen to information
- Ability to convey a spoken message accurately and effectively in a clinical setting
- Ability to paraphrase, summarise and reference in accordance with appropriate academic conventions in written assignments
- Ability to producing accurate, concise and clear dental documentation which meets legal requirements
Numeracy Introduction 1 Competent and accurate numeracy skills are essential for safe and effective patient care Description 2 Interpreting and correctly applying data, measurements and numerical criteria Explanation 3
Justification of inherent requirement:
- Competent application of numeracy skills is essential in dentistry/oral health to facilitate the safe and effective delivery of dental/oral health care
Nature of adjustments 4 Adjustments must demonstrate a capacity to interpret and apply concepts and processes appropriately in a timely, accurate and effective manner Exemplars 5
- Performing accurate drug calculations eg prescriptions for antibiotic cover; medications for children.
- Producing documentation of correct tooth identification
BDS and BOH Inherent Requirement Statements- Sensory abilities Dental and Oral Health practice requires adequate visual, auditory and tactile abilities. Visual Introduction 1 Adequate visual acuity is required to provide safe and effective dental/oral health care Description 2 Demonstrates sufficient visual acuity to perform the required range of skills Explanation 3 Justification of inherent requirement:
- Sufficient visual acuity is necessary to demonstrate the required range of skills, through the performance of relevant tasks and assessments whilst maintaining consistent, accurate and safe care to self and others
- Visual observations of the broader environment and precise and rapid reaction to sensory stimuli
- Visual observations, examination, assessment and treatment are fundamental to safe and effective dental/oral health practice
Nature of adjustments 4 Adjustments must address the need to perform the full range of tasks involved in clinical practice. Any strategies to address the effects of a Vision Impairment must be effective, consistent and not compromise treatment or safety Exemplars 5
- Accurately conduct all dental clinical procedures including examination, diagnosis and treatment
- Observing and detecting subtle changes in patient's response to dental procedures
- Accurately observing and interpreting colour and shape for aesthetic clinical procedures
Auditory Introduction 1 Adequate auditory ability is required to provide effective and safe dental/oral health care Description 2 Demonstrates sufficient aural function to undertake the required range of tasks Explanation 3
Justification of inherent requirement:
- Sufficient auditory ability is necessary to monitor, assess and manage individual health needs consistently and accurately
- Auditory assessments and observations are fundamental to safe and effective dental/oral health practice
Nature of adjustments 4 Adjustments must address the need to perform the full range of tasks involved in clinical practice. Any strategies to address the effects of Hearing Impairment must be effective, consistent and not compromise treatment or safety Exemplars 5
- Participate in group discussions and patient communication
- Listening to patient/staff over the noise of the clinic environment
Tactile Introduction 1 Sufficient tactile ability is required to perform competent and safe dental/oral health care Description 2 Demonstrates sufficient tactile function to undertake the required range of skills and assessments Explanation 3 Justification of inherent requirement:
- Sufficient tactile ability is necessary to monitor, assess and detect patients' physical and oral characteristics and act on any abnormalities detected to provide safe and appropriate dental/oral health care
- Tactile assessments and observations are fundamental to safe and effective dental/oral health practice
Nature of adjustments 4 Adjustments must have the capacity to make effective assessments of physical characteristics and abnormalities within safe time frames Exemplars 5
- Examination of teeth and oral tissues, periodontal probing/scaling and use of dental handpieces/surgical instruments. Accurately interpreting tactile information from use of hand and rotary instruments to make clinical decisions
Strength & Mobility Dental and Oral Health practice requires strength and mobility involving fine and gross motor skills. Gross Motor Introduction 1 Utilisation of appropriate gross motor skills is required in dentistry/oral health to undertake appropriate clinical care Description 2 Demonstrates the ability to perform gross motor skills to function within scope of practice Explanation 3
Justification of inherent requirement:
- Sufficient gross motor skills are necessary to perform, coordinate and prioritise care. Tasks that involve gross motor skills include sitting, standing, twisting, bending, using upper and lower limbs during tasks and manoeuvring around equipment, patient and members of dental team in confined spaces and over defined distances. Students must be able to demonstrate and perform these tasks consistently and safely to reduce the risk of harm to self and others
Nature of adjustments 4 Adjustments must facilitate functional effectiveness, safety of self and others and a capacity to provide appropriate care Exemplars 5
- Undertaking emergency life support
- Sitting for prolonged periods; moving around patient; standing for certain procedures eg dental extractions, constructing removable prostheses
- Using a foot control at same time as using hands to manipulate dental instruments/handpiece
Gross Motor Introduction 1 Dental and Oral Health practice requires both physical and mental performance at a consistent and sustained level to meet individual needs over time Description 2 Demonstrates:
- Consistent and sustained level of physical energy to complete a specific task in a timely manner and over time
- The ability to perform repetitive activities with a level of concentration that ensures a capacity to focus on the activity until it is completed appropriately
- The capacity to maintain consistency and quality of performance throughout the designated period of duty
Explanation 3 Justification of inherent requirement:
- Sufficient physical and mental endurance is an essential requirement needed to perform multiple tasks in an assigned period to provide safe and effective care without compromise
Nature of adjustments 4 Adjustments must ensure that performance is consistent and sustained over a given period. Exemplars 5
- Participating in clinic sessions, simulated clinic sessions, tutorials, lectures, skills throughout the day
- Providing consistent care over a negotiated time frame, in blocks of up to three hours
Reference and Acknowledgements: University of Western Sydney Inherent requirements http://www.uws.edu.au/ir/inherent_requirements (online access 1/4/2014) University of Western Sydney Inherent requirements for Medicine http://www.uws.edu.au/ir/inherent_requirements/inherent_requirements_for_medicine_courses (online access 1/4/2014) University of Western Sydney Inherent requirements for Nursing http://www.uws.edu.au/ir/inherent_requirements/bachelor_of_nursing_inherent_requirements (online access 1/4/2014)